*Celestial Mechanics and Aether.* This article is based on a detailed analysis of the research of the cosmic Aether, which has certain patterns and is involved in natural phenomena. The material was created based on the results of the work of famous scientists – Galileo Galilei, Robert Hooke, Daniel Bernoulli, Leonhard Euler, and in which the mechanics of gravity processes that affect many physical phenomena will be considered.

## Celestial Mechanics and Aether

Let’s imagine something falling into an absolute void. The beginning of the denial of the Aether is not connected with the beliefs of relativists, it began even earlier – in the time of Isaac Newton. At that historical time for science, the theory of gravity was laid down not by Newton, but by Rene Descartes, who relied on the theory of the cosmic Aether. Also working in this field was Robert Hooke, who described the theory of elasticity and was convinced of the existence of the world Aether.

The version of the theory of gravity proposed to the scientific community by Isaac Newton did not go against the philosophy of Rene Descartes and the quantitative theory of Robert Hooke. In his report, he wrote: “To think that a body acts on another body at any distance in the void, without the medium of anything, while transmitting action and force – I consider it an absurd occupation. This is unacceptable for people who understand philosophical subjects.” Although he later criticized Cartesianism and the theory of the cosmic Aether, he stated: “the action of gravity can be transmitted instantly from one celestial body to another, and only at the behest of the Lord.”

Thanks to the authority of Newton, the European scientific community represented gravity, space in an absolute Newtonian void. This led to a long crisis and deadlock in modern physics.

As everyone knows, to date, the calculation of the motion of several celestial bodies is a certain difficulty, not to mention a large number. These difficulties lie in the same reason – the denial of the Aether. When reading any textbook on celestial mechanics, you can find a large number of nonsense.

The first thing that catches the eye is the discrepancy between the action of forces and the nature of the movement of celestial bodies. If we adhere to Newton’s laws, which can actually be attributed to other scientists: the first and second belong to Galileo, the third to Huygens, and the well – known law of gravity-to Hooke, then we can observe an absurd situation. It follows from these laws that the force of the Sun’s action on the Moon is much greater than the force of the Earth’s action on it, but for some reason the Moon does not break away in the direction of the Sun, but moves along an orbital trajectory around our planet.

So the Newtonian force of attraction of the Moon by the Sun is 2.5 times more important than the force of gravity of the Earth, but the Moon does not leave its orbit in the direction of the Sun. Therefore, logically speaking, it becomes clear that the “Newtonian” force has nothing to do with this phenomenon. In order to eliminate this discrepancy, various empirical quantities were introduced in celestial mechanics, which are generally considered to be quantities that do not have a certain accuracy and physical justification. These are the radius of action of the planets, the Hill sphere, and many others.

To obtain certain results, empirically fitting methods were invented, for example, the method of gluing trajectories, which is based on the recalculation and corrective actions of the orbits on a set of short segments. On each of the segments, the force of gravity was considered as static.

**Lunar history**. At all times, the moon has attracted the eyes of people to itself. From a certain point on, there was even a theory of the motion of the Moon, which became an example for considering examples in celestial mechanics. A large number of scientists have tried to learn the secrets of the Moon-A. K. Clereau, J. L. Dalembert, J. L. Lagrange, P. S. Laplace, S. D. Poisson, S. Newcome, S. E. Delaunay, A. Andoyer. There were new theories, the enumeration of which can write a thick book.

There was also an increase in the number of new mathematical equations that were devoid of physical meaning, but many believed that they allowed us to get closer to solving the movement of the Moon over a certain period of time. In this case, an approximation of the unknown empirical series is observed, in which the successful result depends on the harmony of the received data. In the case where the series is a set of values of a sinusoid, it is not necessary to say that it is possible to predict the values of a sinusoid for a million years ahead. With the advent of computer technology, mathematicians have an inspiring hope that they will be able to find a meaningful solution to the problem.

One of the mathematicians writes: “The success of the first computer theory of the Moon’s motion was obvious. It became clear that with the help of a computer, a person can calculate any of the theories with great accuracy and make a comparison with the results of classical theory and with the most accurate observations.”

Another respected author said: “Most problems of celestial mechanics are not related to integrable in squares, then it is advisable to use the methods of successive approximations.”

“…does not apply to integrable squares” – this is a statement of the fact that there is no measure in the gravitational theory, which occurs not only in the physical sense, but also in the mathematical sense (Lebesgue, Stiltjes, Sachs, Kolmogorov, etc.), that is, it determines the direction of movement of mathematicians who want to present their theories in the form of theories, and not in the form of a contradiction.

Therefore, we can conclude that modern Newtonian celestial mechanics is based on solving problems of the behavior of a body in the gravitational field of a single spherical heavy body. This is considered when prescriptive formulas coincide with practice.

As you know, 2,000 years ago, Democritus, without a computer and a large particle accelerator, was able to conclude that the primary basis of matter was discrete. Democritus ‘ atoms were recognized by the scientific community more than two centuries ago, and his amers are waiting for their time. However, if you do not send the water of Alpheus to the stables of Augius, … the cart will be longer there.

Let’s try to look at the Universe through the eyes of Democritus. As evidenced by the causality of the Universe, the universe can be represented as a plane located in three-dimensional Euclidean space, which flows in one direction of time.

All this space is occupied by a special discrete primordial matter, which is called Aether.

Democritus considered the amers to be the indivisible elements of the Aether. Amers can be in two states that determine the state of the Aether-corpuscular (stable, unexcited) and phase (excited state).

According to Democritus, the corpuscular Aether consists of unexcited amers, which are spheres-gyroscopes assembled into domains.

The phase Aether is a substance – a two-dimensional gas that is able to propagate along the boundaries of domains.

There is also an opinion that the electromagnetic field is a phenomenon in which there is a joint polarized excitation of phase and corpuscular ethers.

The substance is considered to be the excited state of the domains of the corpuscular Aether, at the time of the phase transition of the phase Aether (pseudo-gas) to the state of the corpuscular Aether (pseudo-liquid).

Causality is described by the conservation laws. That is, nothing comes out of nothing. It follows that the linearity of space and time exists. Otherwise, it makes no sense to gloss over the commensurability, the existence of a measure of various physical phenomena, the very concepts of conservation. Hence the eternity of the universe.

At one time, Democritus expressed the idea that without the recognition of discreteness, it makes no sense to think about continuity, and put forward the concept of amer – the non – divisible element- Aether, which is the primary basis for the creation of visible substances.

The energy content of Aether is huge.

It was calculated by Max Planck at the time. This indicator represents the number of amers in the Planck radius of 1.616•10-35 m in cubic meters, which is multiplied by the Planck energy of 1.956•109 Joules. The result was a value of 1.11•10113 J / m3.

The density of matter in the Universe, as is commonly believed, is 1•10-29 kg / m3 or 9•10-13 J / m3. Therefore, the Aether can be taken as the energy basis of the Universe, and the matter is less than 1/10125 of its part, that is, they are separated exactly by the square of a Large Planck number. This indicates the balance, stationarity, and eternity of the universe.

According to the data, the corpuscular Aether cannot be compressed, and it is under a high hydrostatic pressure of 2.13•1081 [Pa].

## The gravitational Aether.

As mentioned above, the corpuscular Aether is nothing more than a pseudo-liquid of amers, which are collected in domains, that is, in a kind of droplets. Each domain contains approximately 31062 amers, which are called the Planck large number. There is also an Aether temperature that equates to 2.7°K.

At the time, this led researchers to discover protons and electrons, which are the domains of the corpuscular Aether. When a particle of matter originates on the surface of an electron or inside a proton, the phase transition of the phase Aether to the corpuscular one constantly occurs. This process can be called the condensation of Aether. In antimatter, the reverse process is observed, which causes the” evaporation ” of **amers** – the transition of amers from a corpuscular form to a phase one.

Amers of the phase Aether have 30 times more volume than amers of the corpuscular Aether. They also have a larger radius, which is calculated by extracting the root from a large Planck number. Therefore, it is generally assumed that the amer of the phase Aether has the approximate dimensions of the Aether domain or elementary particle, and its “thickness” is equal to zero, that is, it has a value of 10-21 of the radius of the amer of the corpuscular Aether. Scientists believe that the concentration of the phase Aether has little effect on the volume and pressure in the Aether, and the pressure of the corpuscular Aether has minimal effect on the movement of the phase Aether.

It is also known that the condensation of the phase Aether in the gravitational process occurs at a rate of 8.52•1050 [amer/kg s]. That is, the flow-flow of amers for 1013 seconds = 317 thousand years is 1 Aether domain with a volume of ≈10-45 [m3] per kilogram of mass of matter. Thus, the Aether flows caused by gravity are so insignificant that they can be ignored.

The researchers suggested that the cause of gravity is a change in the pressure in the Aether, which is triggered by the phase transition of **amers**, in which their volume changes by 30 times. This volume is also small, but the Aether is considered to be an incompressible substance. Its volume elastic modulus (Hooke modulus) is B = 6.34•1082 [kg / ms2], and the Poisson’s ratio differs from 0.5 by-10-33.

## Hooke’s power and Aether.

Based on Hooke’s formula for compressing an ideally elastic liquid, which is an Aether, we can determine its main properties.

As it is known that the Aether is an elastic substance and is under high pressure, there is a strictly linear relationship between the additional pressure or rarefaction pg that occurs at any point of the Aether and the change in its volume Vg at this point. In addition, the dependence of the potential energy relative to the compression / stretching of the Aether on the average value is linear.

It is commonly assumed that the volume Vg is the volume of the “absolute void” that occurs at the time of the phase transition from the phase form to the corpuscular form of the Aether, that is, as a result of a sharp decrease in pressure when the volume of amer decreases during the phase transition.

From this it can be seen that Vg is an insignificant value, which differs from the value of V depending on the value of the observation radius of the field, the effective pressure outside the body.

This allows us to represent the pressure pg as an integral function of the radius R, which is created during the phase transition of amers, which creates deformation forces that are linearly dependent on the mass, that is, on the velocity regime of the phase transition in the body.

*Celestial Mechanics and Aether*