Unipolar Induction. What is characteristic of fundamental discoveries, for great achievements of the intellect, is the fact that they retain much power over the imagination of the thinker. I mean the unforgettable experiment of Faraday with the rotation of the disk between the two poles of a magnet, which brought such an excellent result, which has long been tested in everyday experiments; Yet there are some topological elements in this seed of existing dynamos and engines, which even today attract attention, and deserve the most careful study.
Consider, for example, the case of a disk made of iron or another metal rotating between two opposite poles of a magnet and polar surfaces completely covering both sides of the disk, and assume that the electrical current is removed and transmitted by the contacts evenly from all points of the disk edge. Take the engine case first. In all conventional motors, the rotation of the rotor depends on some displacement or change in the total magnetic attraction acting on the rotor, this is achieved technologically or with some mechanical device on the engine or the effect of electrical currents of proper polarity. We can explain the rotation of such an engine just as we can do for a water gear.Unipolar Induction
But in the above example of a disk surrounded by completely polar surfaces, there is no bias of the magnetic action, no change at all, as far as we know, and yet the rotation occurs. The usual arguments do not work here; we cannot even give a superficial explanation, as in conventional engines, and the principle of action will be clear to us only when we understand the very nature of the forces involved, and comprehend the mystery of invisible interaction.
Considered as a dynamo machine, the disk is a rather interesting object of study. In addition to its features of generating electric currents in one direction without using switching devices, such a machine differs from conventional dynamos, in which there is no interaction between the rotor and the stator field. The rotor current causes a magnetization perpendicular to the direction of the electric current, but since the electric current flows evenly from all points of the edge, as well as being precise, the external circuit can also fit perfectly symmetrical to the permanent magnet, no interaction can simply occur. This, however, is true only for weak magnets, because when magnets are more powerful, both magnetizations at right angles seem to interact with each other.
For the above reason, it is logical to conclude that for such a machine, for the same weight, the recoil should be much greater than for any other machine in which the current flowing in the rotor tends to demagnetize the field created by the stator. Forbes’s extraordinary conclusion about the unipolar dynamo and the experience with the device confirm this view.
So, the main principle on the basis of which such a machine can be made itself exciting is striking, but it can be natural, since there is a lack of interaction of the rotor, and accordingly, the current of disturbances free from disturbances and the absence of self-induction. (Dragons’ Lord: Hereinafter, under the term “self-excitation” Tesla means the effect of the appearance of electric current in the device, since there are no permanent magnets in the device of its “unipolar”, but there are electromagnets. Thus, “self-excitation” is not (!) An analogue of the appearance of SUPERINCINAL ENERGY – here it is not mentioned at all).
If the poles do not cover (do not cover) the disk completely on both sides, then, of course, if the disk is not properly divided, the mechanism will be very inefficient. Again, in this case there are moments worthy of attention. If the disk rotates and the field current is interrupted (the circuit supplying the electromagnet is broken), the flow through the rotor disk will continue to flow and the field of the magnets will lose power relatively slowly. The reason for this is immediately there, when we consider the direction of the currents in the disk.
Take a look at Figure 1, d represents a disk with sliding contacts B and B ‘on the axis and periphery. N and S are two poles of a magnet.
If the pole N is higher, as indicated in the figure, the disk is assumed to be in the plane of the paper and rotating in the direction of arrow D. The current established in the disk will flow from the center to the periphery, as indicated by arrow A. Since the magnetic effect is more or less limited the gap between the poles N and S, other parts of the disk can be considered inactive. The steady current will therefore not completely pass through the external circuit I ‘, but will close directly through the disk, and in general, if the arrangement is similar to that shown, of course, most of the produced flow will not manifest outwardly, since circuit F is actually short-circuited by the inactive parts of the disk.
The direction of the resulting currents in the disk can be taken to be, as indicated by dashed lines and arrows m and n; and the direction of flow of the excitation field, indicated by arrows a, b, c, d, analysis of the figure shows that one of these two branches of the eddy current, i.e. A-B’-mR, will tend to demagnetize the field, while the other branch that is, A-B’-nB will produce the opposite effect. Therefore, an A-B’-mB branch, that is, one that approaches a field, will repel lines, while an A-B’-nB branch, that is, a leaving field, will collect the lines of force on itself.
Because of this, there is a constant tendency to reduce the current flow in the track B’-mB, while on the other hand such opposition will not exist in the track B’-nB, and the branch or track effect will more or less prevail over the first. The combined effect of both branches of the currents could be represented by a single stream of the same direction as the field excitation. In other words, the eddy currents circulating in the disk will additionally amplify the magnet. This result is quite contrary to what could have been assumed first, since we naturally expected that the resulting rotor currents would counteract the current induced by the magnets, since this usually happens when the primary and secondary conductors have an inductive interaction.
But it should be remembered that this is a consequence of a specific mutual arrangement, namely, the presence of two paths provided to the induced and opposing current, each of them chooses the path that offers the least amount of counteraction. From this we see that the eddy current flowing into the disk partially excites the magnet field, and for this reason when the induced current interrupting the currents in the disk continues to flow and the field magnet will lose its strength relatively slowly and may even retain some force as long as the rotation of the disk going on.
The result will, of course, largely depend on the resistance and geometrical measurements of the eddy current path and on the speed of rotation; – and it is these elements that determine the deceleration of this current and its position in relation to the field. For a certain speed, there is a maximum exciting action; while at higher speeds, it would gradually decrease, tending to zero and finally completely reversed, that is, the effect of the eddy current would have to weaken the field.
The reaction can be better demonstrated experimentally by positioning the N and S poles, as well as N ‘and S’, on a freely moving axis, concentric with the axis of the disk. If the latter rotated as before in the direction of the arrow D, the field would act in the same direction with a moment, which, up to a certain value, will grow with the speed of rotation, then decrease, and, passing through zero, finally becomes negative; that is, the magnet would begin to rotate in the opposite direction to the disk.
In experiments with alternative electric motors, in which the field is changed by currents of different phases, an interesting result was observed. For very low field speeds, the engine showed a moment of 900 pounds, or more, measured on a pulley 12 inches in diameter. When the speed of rotation of the poles was increased, the moment decreased and finally decreased to zero, and became negative, and then the anchor began to rotate in the opposite direction to the field.
Returning to the basic idea, assume that conditions such that the eddy currents produced by rotating the disk reinforce the field, and assume that the latter gradually increases, while the disk remains rotating incrementally (Dragons’ Lord: however, the necessary thought slips here) . The current once began, and may be sufficient to support itself and even increase in strength, and then we have the case of Sir William Thomson’s “current battery”.
But from the above considerations, it would seem that for the success of the experiment the resistance of a solid disk would be significant, since if there was a radial partition, the eddy currents could not be formed and their harmful effects would cease. If such a star-shaped radially composite disk were used, it would be necessary to connect the spokes along the edge with a conductor or in any other way in order to form a symmetrical system of closed circuits.
The action of the eddy currents can be used to excite the machine of any design. For example, in Fig.2 and 3, devices are shown in which a machine with a rotor-disk could be excited by eddy currents.
Here, a multitude of magnets, NS, NS, are placed star-shaped radially on each side of the metal disk D and, in continuation of its periphery, a set of isolated coils, C and C. Magnets form two separate areas, internal and external. There is a hard disk rotating on an axis and a coil in a region remote from it. Let us assume that the magnets are a bit excited at startup; they could enhance the effect of the eddy currents in the hard disk to provide a stronger area for the peripheral coils. Although there is no doubt that under such conditions a machine could be excited by this or similar means, there is enough experimental evidence to guarantee that such a mode of excitation will be wasteful.
But a self-excited unipolar generator or motor of the construction shown in Fig. 1 can be excited efficiently, simply by separating the disk or cylinder in which currents are induced, and removing the excitation coils that are commonly used. Such a scheme is shown in Fig.4.
The disk or cylinder D is supposed to rotate between the two poles N and S of the magnet, which completely cover the disk on both sides, the contours of the disk and the poles represented by circles d and d ‘, respectively, the upper pole, is not shown for clarity. The cores of the magnet are supposed to have holes in the center, the disk drive shaft C pierces them. If the unmarked pole is lower and the disk rotates, the current of the screw form will, as before, flow from the center to the periphery, and can be removed by the corresponding sliding contacts, B and B ‘, on the shaft and the periphery, respectively. In this device, the current flowing through the disk and the external circuit will have no noticeable effect on the exciting magnet.
But let me now assume that the disk is divided into sectors, in a spiral, as indicated by solid or dotted lines in Fig.4. The potential difference between a point on a shaft and a point on the periphery will remain unchanged, in sign as well as in quantity. The only difference will be that the resistance of the disk will be increased and there will be a greater potential drop from a point on the shaft to a point on the periphery when the same current flows through the external circuit.
But since the current is forced to follow the splitting lines, we see that it will either contribute to or resist the field of excitation and this will depend, ceteris paribus, on the direction of the splitting line. If the partition is implemented as indicated by the solid lines in Fig. 4, then it is obvious that if the current is in the same direction as before, that is, from the center to the periphery, its effect will have to intensify the exciting magnet; whereas, if the partition is implemented as indicated by dashed lines, the current produced will tend to weaken the magnet. In the first case, the machine will be able to be excited when the disk rotates in the direction of the arrow D; in the latter case, the direction of rotation must be reversed.
Two such disks can be combined, however, as indicated above, these two disks can either rotate in opposite directions or into one. Such an arrangement can, of course, be realized in a machine in which, instead of this disk, a cylinder rotates. In such unipolar machines of this type, conventional excitation coils and poles can be omitted, and the machine can be made to consist of only a cylinder or two discs surrounded by a metal case. (Dragons’ Lord: what exactly Tesla means – I will tell you below).
Instead of subdividing a disk or cylinder in a spiral, as indicated in Fig.4, it is more convenient to insert one or more turns between the disk and the slip ring at the periphery, as shown in Fig.5.
A Forbes self-excited generator may, for example, be excited in the manner described above. In the author’s experience, instead of removing the current from two such disks with sliding contacts, as usual, a flexible conductive driving belt was used to increase efficiency. The discs in this case are supplied with large flanges, providing great contact with the surface.
The belt must be made so that it engages with the flanges in the tension to compensate for the leakage fit. Several cars with a contact belt were built by the author two years ago, and worked satisfactorily; but due to lack of time, work in this direction was temporarily stopped. Many of the features mentioned above were also used by the author in some types of AC motors.* * *
Actually, that’s the whole article. In general, for a long time I could not understand how the unipolarist works. But once I came across the site of Evgeny Arsentiev http://evg-ars.narod.ru.He has there a tiny divider, “Electric” is called. It is described in it – magnetohydrodynamic engine. This is where I “skipped chip”. Only there the water rotates, and in our case the metal disk, – but the force that makes the working body rotate is the same;).
In general, I managed to fold three different strings into one on the same day. And it dawned on me, – I guessed how Tesla made his super unit generator, about which there are so many rumors. The first thread is the site of Arsentiev. The second is the translation of “notes” from Sib. And the third – I visited at the same time another site http://energy.org.ru, where I unearthed an interesting article. The original article was published in the journal “Inventor and Rationalizer”, No. 2, 1962. It was called “Fog over the Magnetic Field”, meaning the incompetence of some moments in classical physics. To make everything clear, I will bring it here:* * *
– I have to you about the article “illegal statics.” My last name is Rodin.
– One more.
The call of Kaluga inventors to explain what happens to the engine, the rotor of which rotates under the action of an electrostatic field (IL, 6, 81), has touched the minds unusually. Call and write to the editor continuously. We expect in the future to give an overview of the most interesting explanations.
I was going to send the Motherland to the authors of the invention, as he suddenly: “I myself have something equally interesting. Let’s go?”
Pleasant, tastefully furnished apartment of Alexander Leontievich is not typically inventive housing. But he leads me to some windowless corner, obviously a closet. “My office”. There is a workbench, a rectifier, devices, tools. On the workbench some design. On the same axis sit two ring permanent magnet, between them a copper disk. Brushes are connected to the disk, the wires of which are connected to the microammeter.
– I collected the same model several years ago, when I needed a unipolar motor for work – it is a disk or cylinder rotating between magnets, and the current from which is removed with brushes. Like this. – Rodin secured the magnets and began to rotate the axis with the handle, and with it the disk. Arrow ammeter crept to the right – there is a current.
– Have you invited me to demonstrate the experience of Faraday? I, you know, back in school …
– And what will happen if we turn the magnets and the disk is still? – as if not noticing my irritation, asked Rodin.
– The same will happen. What’s the difference ? Sorry, but I, unfortunately, have time … – I stopped short. The landlord rotated the magnets around the fixed disk at a solid speed, and the needle stood at zero.
“So I opened my mouth the same way,” Rodin laughed. – Began to look, check contacts – everything is in order. See for yourself, move the disc slightly. In comparison with the spinning magnets, the movement of the disk was insignificant, but the needle immediately moved.
– Well, now, if you rotate the magnets and the disk together, connecting them into a single rotor?
“It seems there should be no current,” I said uncertainly. – After all, they are relatively stationary …
However, the disc and the magnets rotating together gave a current.
And then Rodin showed me a motor without a stator, connecting one of the wires from the rectifier to the axis on which the disk and magnets are sitting, and the other one brought straight to the disk – the whole system spun.
– Do you understand why I was interested in the rotor of Kaluga? But they have another. And for my experiences, I have this explanation.
I assume that the traditional concept of a magnetic field, as the indispensable membership of a magnet, is incorrect. In this case, it really wouldn’t matter what about what we move.Oddly enough, no one moved the “endless” magnet along the conductor, at least in the literature I have not seen this. It is much easier to move the conductor through the sliding contacts than the magnets, while maintaining their plane-parallel movement. I not only moved the magnets parallel to the table on which the conductor lay, but also rotated them in different directions and in the opposite direction to the disk movement – the result is the same: the magnitude and direction of the current in the circuit depend only on the speed and direction of disk rotation. So the field is motionless?
I conclude: do not worry, it does not belong to the magnet, but as it were poured into the universe. The magnet only excites him, as the ship excites the waves, not dragging them along. And as with a ship propeller, they are greatest, and the greatest excitation occurs near the magnet. Now it is clear why, rotating with the magnets, the conductor crosses a stationary magnetic field.
As for the motion of the rotor without a stator, the only explanation here is the work of the Lorentz forces acting on charged particles moving in a magnetic field. Under their influence, electrons acquire a tangential direction of motion and carry the disk along with the magnets. By the way, there is no reactive moment on the magnets: I installed a magnet between the disks, brought current to it – did not move.
So far I have not found any other explanation for this effect, although I have been searching for a very long time, asking for help from very high scientific institutions. It has been suggested, for example, that with the simultaneous rotation of the magnets and the conductor, the current is induced in the brushes and their wires leading to the ammeter. This, of course, is not the case; otherwise, it would be induced with a fixed disk. Or it would change if you move the conductors themselves, But just in case I assembled the circuit without brushes and wires – the effect is the same.
It was believed that the influence of the Earth’s magnetic field is possible. Slightly plausible, but we will try. I moved the system in this way and that in space, rotated one disk without magnets – no current, of course. So if there are more plausible explanations – just say thank you.
So, one more task for readers: try to find another explanation for the results of the Motherland experiments, by the way, easily reproducible …
And second: how to practically use them? Such rotorless and generally unipolar engines and generators are still weak and have low efficiency. But already today the areas of their application, for example, in instrument engineering, are visible. Particularly attractive is that the engine does not have a stator and a reactive torque. And besides, if these engines and generators really change our understanding of the magnetic field, their practical value can be enormous.
Well, how? – The most real knowledge from the last text is that we can stick magnets directly to the disk. Thus we will receive the WHOLE device, without interacting parts. So I thought right away, dreaming how I would “strain” sponsors on thin (and therefore light), but very powerful ring magnets made of rare-earth metals. We need powerful magnets, because The overall efficiency of the unipolar generator is rather small. Naturally, the radius of the magnets and the disk must be made larger in order to increase the effective area, and hence the level of the voltage produced.
But this is all baby talk. My thought, of course, crawled on. It turned out that the very knowledge that we don’t give a damn whether the magnetic field rotates or not turns out to be important and, accordingly, the coils of electromagnets rotate (and Tesla, pay attention, namely electromagnets) or stand still.
I draw your attention to the description of the technology shown in Fig.5 by Tesla himself. He proposed to abandon the external exciting magnets altogether (to which I indicated in the text of the “notes”) and to obtain the magnetic field in the disk by passing the generated current through the external circuit. – He calls this circuit “one or more coils”, but I will tell you more – this circuit, in an improved version, Tesla himself patented separately, after four years of research, – in ANOTHER patent! This is his bifilar coil “FOR ELECTROMAGNETS” !!!This was my insight. Now it becomes clear why Tesla patented this “strange” patent during this period of his creative activity (as noted in his famous article Oliver Nichelson). And it becomes clear the very purpose, formulated in the name of the patent bifilyarki.
Just so guess that you can do without external magnets is very difficult, because This idea is described by Tesla himself very vaguely. Immediately it becomes clear how to apply the superproperties of the bifilya. After all, why does Tesla talk about “one or more” coil, and not about a full coil? Because, in a conventional flat coil, there is a high resistance to current, which is noticeably reduced in the design of the bifilar by increasing the potential difference in the neighboring turns (which is also practically impossible to guess without reading the patent itself in the Russian version). It is worth noting here that the coil works NOT IN RESONANCE, since the current is not alternating, but constant. But nevertheless, its properties are an order of magnitude more efficient than that of an ordinary flat coil wound in one wire. This means that the magnetic field created by such a bifilar coil will be much stronger!
But wait, the readers will say. What kind of “integrity” of the device can we talk about, if it is known that the disk needs to be rotated, which means you need to have a connection with the motor, and therefore the bearings for the axis of the device cannot escape, not to mention the “transfer” mechanisms inside the electric motor itself? – The most value of unipolar induction is that if you apply voltage to such a disk, the disk begins to rotate. And as we see from the last article, the coil creating the magnetic field for this disk can also rotate with the disk itself and be fixed on it, i.e. be one with him.
Little interrupted and note the following. In his patent to the unipolar generator, taking into account the friction on the side surface of the external removable contact disk (and hence the huge braking torque – and the larger the radius, the larger it is), the ingenious Tesla suggests using a device consisting of TWO disks. Through a flexible conductive belt, the current is transmitted from the outer surface of one to the outer surface of the other, and it offers to release the voltage-removing contacts against the center of the axes of each disk, which ensures the minimum friction that is possible. The only inconvenience, as we see, lies in the most flexible belt.
I would venture to look further than Tesla himself allowed himself (he just did not know at that time that the magnets could be rotated with the disk). – The obvious improvement is this way: to put both disks on one axis! It is clear that both axles (for two discs) are insulated from each other by a non-conductive connector. We receive the generator where the flexible belt is not necessary, since electricity from one disk to another (external circuits) is transmitted through a conventional wire. It is clear that both disks, although they rotate with the axis, are fixed relative to each other (the wire too). Further under the description of the patent.
Okay, back to thinking about our “eternal engine.” I have already said that the unipolar effect arising in the disk can be used and vice versa, i.e. as a motor. Nothing prevents us from planting both the drive that generates the current and the drive that serves as a motor – on a single axis. Both disks are relatively fixed to each other. So, we got rid of one more connection (between the engine and the generator). The problem of current-collecting contacts remains, going both from the generator and to the electric motor. The exit from a problem situation lies on the surface. – We do not need contacts at all! We transfer the received voltage from the generator to the engine DIRECTLY !!! – After a couple of wires. No, even through one wire, because the second conductor is the common axis, in this case, for two disks;).
The remaining sole contact of the device (WHOLE) with the outside world is the bearings at the ends of the axis. It’s simple. – we make the “magnetic curtain” of the whole device (how I will do it later, no matter how I tell you), as a result of which ALL of our generator is obtained hanging in the air !!! And no wires to it do not fit and do not move! This is already cool …
The main highlight of such a pairing is that according to the properties of the unipolar induction process itself, there is no resistance to the action, i.e. no self-induction (completely absent). Moreover, as Tesla has taught us, we are not that weakening the action of the opposition, but rather the opposite – we add our opposition to the action than we increase it all the time! With a conventional engine and generator, this would not work. So, we have a device that will infinitely increase its speed (friction is zero, – our magnetic curtain), making ourselves stronger and stronger !!! That’s because what Satanism;).
A very attentive reader will notice that one small detail has remained unresolved. How to make a device useful. That is, how to relieve tension in the load. – Very simple, – the load must also be placed on the generator device itself (for example, a light bulb), and be integral with it;).
With the load, by the way, as Oliver Nichelson pointed out in his article (I like the editorial board from the 91st year even more than from the 93rd), we also have a great joke. Adding an external load to the generator circuit not only does not weaken it, it even strengthens and forces, working more intensively, to generate more current !!! This is generally a bad thing.
Hehe, if you really make such a thing, then it will simply break off from the mega-super speed, which it will achieve, so I suggest not to make a magnetic curtain, but to use ordinary bearings. Moreover, let’s remove the voltage from both ends (the center of the axes), as I suggested in my improvement of Tesla’s unipolar generator, i.e. Now we can use the resulting voltage for our own purposes (arbitrary external load). Thus, the rotation speed of our generator will not tend to infinity, but the strength of the current in order to burn the wire of the coils;).
When a certain speed is reached, the generator will finally calm down and will not pick up faster turns (due to rolling friction in bearings and contacts). Well, sort of, they persuaded the generator not to overtake our dense age too much.
We can increase the total power of our generator by installing additional disks with coils on the common axis. After all, there will be no more sliding contacts (we connect them with wires directly). What else is good is the very low cost of such a generator. All we need is a few metal (copper can) disks and a little thick wire (the diameter of the wire should be equal to the thickness of the disk).
Later, as suggested, Tesla “hammered” on a mechanical superunit generator (as all inventors do when they achieve the full realization of the idea) and, apparently, came up with a completely electrostatic generator, in which nothing is spinning at all. If such a device existed, then in time, I will definitely come to a similar idea and re-invent, after Tesla, this thing;).See you.*
After 5 years I can make clarifications on the data of this article. I will not reinvent the wheel, but simply quote the correct data:
“The unipolar generator (a ring-shaped magnet with a circumference and a conducting disk, the EMF is removed from the axis and the edge of the disk) has the following features:
– the magnet rotates, the disk costs – EMF = 0,
– the disk rotates, the magnet is – EMF = E1,
– the disk and the magnet rotate together – EMF = E1,
– the disk rotates, the magnet rotates in any direction at any speed – EMF = E1.
Unipolar motor of the same design (voltage is applied to the axis and the edge of the disk):
– the disk is fixed, the magnet has the ability to rotate – when the voltage is applied to the disk, the magnet costs,
– the magnet is fixed, the disk can rotate – when a voltage is applied to the disk, it (the disk) rotates,
– the disk is fixed on the magnet – when the voltage is applied to the disk, the magnet with the disk fixed on it rotates (in its own field!).
Two homogeneous magnets have the ability to independently rotate around one axis. We begin to rotate one magnet, the other is (magnetic bearing). On any magnet placed near a rotating homogeneous magnet, the ENVIRONMENT DOES NOT WORK!
Thus, the movement (rotation) of the carrier of a UNIFORM magnetic field does not manifest in any way in any system of coordination and cannot be detected by any devices! The carrier is moving – the field is worth it!
The magnetic field DOES NOT BELONG TO THE CARRIER, it is not a “special form of matter”, but is a distortion of a certain medium (ether?). It turns out that for the guidance of the EMF, the conductor must move relative to this medium, and not relative to the carrier field. These effects should manifest themselves in open space, where the environment is not shielded. Such an effect was discovered in the experiment on the shuttle in the program “Electrodynamic tether” when the forces induced in a 20-kilometer cable and EMF tore to shreds the cable and the shuttle received the strongest discharge to the hull.
Unfortunately, the physical foundations of the electric and magnetic fields are unknown. Modeling the magnetic field with a vortex flow of an ideal fluid (common in modern physics) is outrageous and illiterate (excusable, however, for the 19th century)! Accordingly, the “everyday views” about electromagnetism of the great theorists and professors — Tamm and Landau — described in their textbooks are not worth a dried fly. ”
I will note only the most important thing: the current-collecting wire MUST be movable relative to the current-generating disc, otherwise it will not work. In view of this, it is necessary to give a correction to the theoretical improvements described above, that is, without fail, the current must be passed through fixed conductors attached to the device case.