by Bill Hamilton
1. MODERN ETHER DRIFT EXPERIMENT:
A. Brillet and J.L. Hall conducted a modern ether drift experiment in 1979. Brillet and Hall put a laser on a rotating platform and split the beam. One part of the beam went into a Fabry-Perot interferometer, the other was directed via mirrors off the platform to be compared with a reference beam from a stationary laser. The frequency of the rotating laser was compared with that of the reference laser; the difference was Fourier analyzed. Any anisotropy of the speed of light would show up as a frequency shift which varied dependent on the direction of the interferometer. If the old pre-Lorentz ether theory were true (static ether), they would have found a frequency shift dependent on sidereal direction of the interferometer and found no such effect.
They also found a frequency shift of 17 Hz at twice the table rotation rate, which they could not explain on direction of interferometer with respect to the lab. It is this effect which is predicted by an entrained ether theory.
An entrained ether theory favors a dynamic ether, an ether that can be entrained in motion by a rotating object, such as earth, embedded within the dynamic ether.
2. ETHER EXPLANATIONS:
If a velocity-dependent medium such as the ether could be established by experiment, then it could open the door to alternative explanations to SR and GR regarding physical phenomena. If this ether is quantized, then we could explore the theoretical nature of a quantum ether. Is gravity a result of some state of the quantum ether?
Does the quantum ether explain inertia? What does an electric or magnetic field do to the state of the quantum ether? Are material particles some wave-state of the quantum ether? Can we unify physical principles by considering a quantum ether?
3. EXPERIMENTING WITH LIGHT:
A test of light speed could be made if some object holding a measuring device could accelerate to some sizable fraction of light speed, say .5c, and test the speed of an electromagnetic emission from this object through space to a reflection point and back to the object from the reference frame of the moving object.
Also, Bryan Wallace delivered a paper on the 1961 measurements of the distance of Venus using radar. Wallace claims that the inconsistencies in the measurements are not supportive of SR, but support a C+v velocity for the radar signal. Perhaps a review of this data, and further refined experiments could determine if the data is consistent with SR or Galilean addition of velocities.
4. SPACE DRIVES:
Why is it important to determine the nature of the ether of space and time? One obvious answer is to determine whether we could find new ways to travel through space or time. The most common solution offered in the past has been to use hyperspatial dimensions to cross enormous distances that separate stellar systems. While it is true that space could harbor more than three dimensions, and time could be enfolded from greater than one dimension, the energy dimensions of ether have yet to be explored.
NASA is now interested in breakthrough physics, on new solutions to space travel, on dispensing with rocket propellants and finding new sources of energy, and on theoretical means for breaking the light barrier.
If the light barrier can be broken by some sort of inertial drive, a drive that changes the resistance of the ether, reducing that resistance in a forward direction, then the velocity of an object may, indeed, exceed the measured velocity of light. In actual fact, if the properties of weight and mass can be nullified by application of electromagnetic forces to the ether in the vicinity of our test object, the object may be propelled without inertial lag and “g” forces to reach incredible speeds with the slightest expenditure of energy.
5. EXPERIMENTS IN ELECTROGRAVITICS:
According to the Air Force Manual from Wright-Patterson AFB on Electrogravitics we have this description on the Thomas Townsend Brown discovery.
Electrogravitics might be described as a synthesis of electrostatic energy used for propulsion – either vertical propulsion or horizontal or both – and gravitics, or dynamic counterbary, in which energy is also used to set up a local gravitational force independent of the earth’s. Electrostatic energy for propulsion has been predicted as a possible means of propulsion in space when the thrust from a neutron motor or ion motor would be sufficient in a dragless environment to produce astronomical velocities. But the ion motor is not strictly a part of the science of electrogravitics, since barycentric control in an electrogravitics system is envisaged for a vehicle operating within the earth’s environment and it is not seen initially for space application. Probably large scale space operations would have to await the full development of electrogravitics to enable large pieces of equipment to be moved out of the region of the earth’s strongest gravity effects.
So, though electrostatic motors were thought of in 1925, electrogravitics had its birth after the War, when Townsend Brown sought to improve on the various proposals that then existed for electrostatic motors sufficiently to produce some visible manifestation of sustained motion. Whereas earlier electrostatic tests were essentially pure research, Brown’s rigs were aimed from the outset at producing a flying article. As a private venture he produced evidence of motion using condensers in a couple of saucers suspended by arms rotating round a central tower with input running down the arms. The massive-k situation was summarized subsequently in a report, Project Winterhaven, in 1952. Using the data some conclusions were arrived at that might be expected from ten or more years of intensive development – similar to that, for instance, applied to the turbine engine. Using a number of assumptions as to the nature of gravity, the report postulated a saucer as the basis of a possible interceptor with Mach 3 capability. Creation of a local gravitational system would confer upon the fighter the sharp-edged changes of direction typical of motion in space.
The essence of electrogravitics thrust is the use of a very strong positive charge on one side of the vehicle and a negative on the other. The core of the motor is a condenser and the ability of the condenser to hold its charge (the k-number) is the yardstick of performance. With air as 1, current dielectrical materials can yield 6 and use of barium aluminate can raise this considerably, barium titanium oxide (a baked ceramic) can offer 6,000 and there is promise of 30,000, which would be sufficient for supersonic speed.
The original Brown rig produced 30 fps on a voltage of around 50,000 and a small amount of current in the milliamp range. There was no detailed explanation of gravity in Project Winterhaven, but it was assumed that particle dualism in the subatomic structure of gravity would coincide in its effect with the issuing stream of electrons from the electrostatic energy source to produce counterbary. The Brown work probably remains a realistic approach to the practical realization of electrostatic propulsion and sustentation. Whatever may be discovered by the Gravity Research Foundation of New Boston a complete understanding and synthetic reproduction of gravity is not essential for limited success. The electrogravitics saucer can perform the function of a classic lifting surface – it produces a pushing effect on the under surface and a suction effect on the upper, but, unlike the airfoil, it does not require a flow of air to produce the effect.
6. AN EXPERIMENT IN MAGNETOGRAVITICS:
The limitation in potential difference achieved by the Brown apparatus has led some of us involved in gravity research to consider the use of magnets and magnetic fields.
The basis of this concept in magnetogravitics is the MHD generator. If a hot gas is seeded with certain elements and the gas is totally ionized this will produce a plasma in which all nucleons and electrons are disassociated in a hydrodynamic mixture. This charged or stratified charged mixture is confined to a volume of space by bottling it inside a magnetic field. Varying magnetic fields are also used to deflect cathode rays in television tubes or particle acclerators. By confining the charges in a magnetic bottle very high potentials can develop without dielectric breakdown.
Much is known concerning magnetic flux rotation through conductors or conduction currents confined by magnetic fields, but little is known about interacting magnetic fields.
An experiment now being assembled tests the hypothesis that a homopolar generator, a generator consisting of a coupled conducting disk and magnet that co-rotates with the armature. Usually such an apparatus is tapped for high amperage currents. In my proposal the homopolar generator rotates within a time-varying magnetic field to increase the potential difference across the radius of the disk, maintaining this potential by magnetic confinement of rim charge. A conducting disk of Alnico with a slightly raised center would be an ideal armature as it should act as a one-piece homopolar generator.
In previous measurements of spinning homopolar disks, the center becomes strongly positive and the rim of the disk, negative. This could be considered an open Brown capacitor that should exhibit an electrogravity effect. It is also proposed that measurements should be taken similar to the measurements taken in the Finnish superconductor weight-reduction experiments.
7. FUTURE DIRECTIONS:
In effect, electrogravitic or magnetogravitic propulsion if successfully developed would lead to a novel form of asymmetric thrust that could be adapted to ground, air, and space transport systems. Such devices could be energized using fuel cells or possibly so-called cold fusion cells and revolutionize our entire systems of transportation. Beyond this we must find means to extend our exploration of space.