In the nineteenth century, mankind entered a period of active search for new technological solutions and scientific ideas. Discoveries were made in various fields of human activity: physics, chemistry, astronomy, biology, medicine, physiology and sociology. After long centuries of prohibition and persecution, humanity has shaken up and thrown off the shackles of prolonged stagnation and inaction. Scientists, explorers and inventors of the planet have begun a long creative path towards their cherished goal – the conquest of outer space. For this, it was necessary to create the material and technical base necessary for the first flights into space.
Development of views on the Universe in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
In 1800, the German chemist and physicist I.V. Ritter and the English chemist and physicist W. Nicholson discovered electrolysis and laid the foundations of electrochemistry. In 1820, the French physicist and mathematician AM Ampere hypothesized that magnetism is conditioned by molecular currents. The French mathematician and mechanic O. L. Cauchy publishes the foundations of mathematical analysis (1823). In 1826, the German physicist G. Ohm formulates the basic law of electric current, and the Russian mathematician N.I. Lobachevsky – the provisions of non-Euclidean geometry.
In the 1840s, the English experimental physicist and chemist M. Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction, and the Irish mathematician W. Hamilton laid the foundations of vector analysis.
In 1859, the German scientists R.W.Bunsen and G.R.Kirchhoff formulated the foundations of spectral analysis. In 1869 the Russian chemist D.I.Mendeleev publishes his Periodic Table of Chemical Elements.
In 1888, the German physicist G. Hertz experimentally confirms D. Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory of light and proves the existence of electromagnetic waves. This predetermines the appearance of the telegraph, telephone, radio, and later, television and the Internet. In 1895, the German physicist V.K.Rentgen discovers X-rays and becomes the first Nobel Prize winner in the history of physics for the discovery of X-rays, without which it is impossible to imagine modern medicine.
In 1896, the French physicist A. Becquerel discovers the phenomenon of natural radioactivity. In 1897, the English physicist J. J. Thomson announced the discovery of the electron.
The discoveries of scientists of the 19th century allowed inventors to present to mankind the steam locomotive R. Trevithick, the steamboat R. Fulton, the steam locomotive of D. Stephenson, the electric motor and electric generator of M. Faraday, the photograph of J.
Niepce, W. Talbot and L. Daguerre, the electric telegraph P. L Schilling, C. Babbage’s analytical engine (prototype of a computer), D. Lindsney’s incandescent lamp, A. Bane’s facsimile, Foucault’s gyroscope, G. Plante’s battery, W. Sturgeon and T. Davenport’s DC electric motor, P. Martin’s open-hearth furnace, A. Bell’s telephone, induction motor, transformer, electric motor and electrical systems of alternating current N. Tesla, monoplane with two motors A. Mozhaisky, radio transmitter, remote control and N. Tesla’s ignition coil, devices for radio communication G. Marconi and much, much other.
The discoveries and inventions of the 19th century made it possible to achieve success in understanding the world order, including in astronomy. In 1801, the Italian astronomer G. Piazzi discovered in the asteroid belt of the solar system, the first dwarf planet Ceres. A little later, he released two star catalogs.
The English astronomer of German origin W. Herschel discovers the movement of the solar system towards the constellation Hercules. At the end of the 18th century, he discovered the planet Uranus and its moons Titania and Oberon, as well as the moons of Saturn, Mimas and Enceladus.
At the beginning of the century, the first spectroscopic installation of the German optician J. Fraunhofer appeared, which makes it possible to begin the study of the light spectra of the Sun, Moon, stars and planets. With the help of his own powerful telescope, the Irish astronomer T. Parsons went beyond the solar system and in 1845 began to study the structures of spiral galaxies.
In 1846, guided by the calculations of W. J. Le Verrier and J. K. Adams, the German astronomer J. G. Halle discovered the planet Neptune in the solar system and described the inner ring of Saturn. He discovered three comets and compiled a survey table with orbital elements for about 180 comets.
In the nineteenth century, humanity’s knowledge of the Universe expanded even more. However, they have not yet acquired a systemic character. The universe remained incomprehensible and mysterious. At the same time, in the nineteenth century, mankind invented and began to introduce into production new industrial equipment, as well as household appliances that ensure a comfortable and convenient life. Vacuum cleaners, fans, gas stoves, electric lighting, telephones, telegraphs, cars, bicycles, trains, ships and even cinematography have appeared in people’s everyday life and have firmly taken their place.
It is gratifying that in the nineteenth century fundamental scientific discoveries were made, which constitute the basis for the further development of science. For scientists and inventors, there was an opportunity to look a little further than the walls of their cozy home in order to plunge into the depths of the atom and go beyond the solar system, into the vastness of the universe. The nineteenth century, having reached its heyday, laid the foundations for technical progress and the study of the outer space of the Universe. They were clearly manifested already in the twentieth century.
The twentieth century
The twentieth century has become a launching pad for modern technologies, progressive beginnings and new fantastic discoveries that are gradually being implemented. Civilization approached the line beyond which a stormy, exciting process of cognition began: unexpected and interesting ideas arose, new hypotheses and theories were developed, the results of unique experiments were analyzed, and modern achievements were introduced into the powerful creative activity of mankind.
Astronomy, cosmology, quantum physics, cybernetics, genetics, and biotechnology developed especially rapidly. In the twentieth century, there was an unspoken “competition” in the number of discoveries in astronomy (in the megaworld) and in quantum physics (in the microcosm).
In 1900, the German theoretical physicist M. Planck laid the foundations of quantum physics, and the Russian scientist and inventor K.E. Tsiolkovsky formulated the foundations of jet propulsion.
In 1911, K. E. Tsiolkovsky calculates the second cosmic velocity, and the British physicist of New Zealand origin E. Rutherford discovers the atomic nucleus and presents the planetary model of the atom to the scientific community. The Austro-American physicist W. Hess discovers cosmic rays in the Universe, and the Danish theoretical physicist N. Bohr in 1913 presents to the world his quantum theory of the atom.
In 1915, A. Einstein develops the general theory of relativity, and the German physicist and astronomer K. Schwarzschild predicts the existence of black holes. In 1918 – 1924, Estonian E. Epik, Americans H. Shapley, G. Curtis and E. Hubble discovered the existence of other galaxies and calculated the distance to the Andromeda nebula, and in 1919 E. Rutherford launched an artificial nuclear reaction and discovered the existence of a proton.
In 1922, on the basis of theoretical reasoning and the solution of A. Einstein’s equations, the Soviet mathematician, physicist and geophysicist A. A. Fridman substantiates the assumption of an expanding Universe.
In the 30s of the twentieth century, E. Hubble, on the basis of observations, confirms the stellar nature of galaxies and discovers the expansion of the Universe.
In the 40s K. Jansky discovers cosmic radio emission in the Universe, J. Chadwick discovers the neutron, KD Andersen – the positron, E. Epik predicts the existence of the Oort cloud in the Universe, and F. Zwicky – of neutron stars and dark matter.
In the 50s, E. Fermi presented an experimental proof of the possibility of obtaining nuclear energy, and J. Hay registers the existence of radio galaxies, N. Wiener sets out the foundations of cybernetics.
In 1953 J. Watson and F. Crick propose a model of the structure of the DNA molecule. In the same year, K.K.Patterson determined the age of the Earth at 4.55 billion years. In 1958 J. Van Allen, S. N. Vernov, A. E. Chudakov discovered the magnetosphere and radiation belts of the Earth.
In the 70s, the scientific community adopted a theoretical construction in particle physics – the Standard Model. Quasars, pulsars and neutron stars are discovered in the Universe, A. Penzias and R. Wilson record relic radiation. Moore’s law is formulated, which predetermined the trends in the development of computer technology, the first human heart transplant is carried out.
In 1985 J. Shanklin and J. Farman discovered ozone holes in the Earth’s atmosphere. In 1992, J. Kuiper discovers a giant asteroid cluster (Kuiper belt) in the solar system.
In 1998 S. Perlmutter, A. Riess, B. Schmidt predict the existence of dark energy, which ensures the accelerated expansion of the Universe.
The twentieth century is rich not only in discoveries, but in inventions. At the beginning of the century, V. Poulsen and R. Fessenden’s radiotelephone, V. Einthoven’s electrocardiograph, the Wright brothers’ aircraft, P. Cornu’s helicopter, G. Kotelnikov’s parachute, A. Fleming’s penicillin, and nuclear medicine by F. Joliot-Curie, I. Joliot-Curie appeared. , T. Takemi, K. Jansky and G. Reber’s radio telescope, M. Knoll and E. Ruska’s electron microscope, V. Zvorykin’s kinescope, K. Zuse and D. Atanasov’s computer.
In the 1940s
In the 1940s, a ramjet rocket, Werner von Braun’s FAU-2 ballistic missile, Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Emile Gagnana’s aqualung, an atomic bomb (Manhattan project of the USA), a transistor by W. Schoch, W. Brattain appeared in the USSR and D. Bardin, the first CNC machines, holography of D. Gabor.
In the 1950s
In the 1950s, the world saw the first nuclear reactor by E. Fermi, high-speed rail transport by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, fiber optics by N. Kapani, thermonuclear charge (experimental installation) by E. Teller and S. Ulam, thermonuclear bomb (USSR), maser Ch Townes, the first nuclear power plant (USSR), T. Hall artificial diamond, nuclear icebreaker (USSR), Ampex video recorder, Casio portable electronic calculator, G. Zara videophone, R-7 intercontinental ballistic missile (USSR).
In the 1960s
In the 1960s, T. Maiman’s laser, D.P. Gregg’s optical disk, N. Holonyak’s LED, the first space observatory of Ball Aerospace & Technologies Co, satellite television from AT&T and Bell Labs, N. Morris e-mail, T V. Vlek, J. Gray LCD display, Tu-144 supersonic passenger aircraft (USSR. 1968). Concorde supersonic passenger aircraft (Great Britain and France 1969).
In the 1970s
In the 1970s, the world saw the appearance of the Tomahawk cruise missile (USA), the microprocessor of M. Hoff, M. Sim, S. Maysor, F. Feggini, the first orbital station Salyut, a Sharp pocket calculator, K. Martin.
In the 1980s, a scanning tunneling microscope was created by G. Binnig and G. Rohrer, laser weapons Omega-2M (USSR), the Internet (the first TCP / IP network) by B. Kahn and V. Cerf, the Internet (domain name system) P. Mokapetrisa, Seiko color LCD display, G. Binnig and C. Gerber atomic force microscope, T. Berners-Lee’s world wide web, pocket personal computer.
In the 1990s
In the 1990s, inventors present to the world carbon nanotubes S. Iijima, DVDs from Philips and Sony, Deep Blue (a chess program that won the match against world champion Garry Kasparov) from IBM, plasma display from Pioneer corporation, K. Decker’s nanotransistor, Blu-ray the BDA consortium, a neurocomputer interface with human participation.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, mankind made a truly revolutionary leap forward in the development of science and technology. The fundamental knowledge of researchers in the field of physics, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, and astronomy has significantly expanded. Discoveries and inventions poured as if from a cornucopia. Man has conquered all the peaks of the world and descended into the deepest ocean depressions. There was only one unconquered height – the cosmic one.
By the middle of the twentieth century, human society was ready to fulfill its long-held and cherished dream – to begin the exploration of outer space. Events quickly followed one after another. In 1957, the first artificial Earth satellite was launched in the USSR. On April 12, 1961, the first flight of the Vostok-1 spacecraft with a man on board was carried out into space.
The first cosmonaut of the planet was the pilot-cosmonaut Yu. A. Gagarin (USSR).
In 1966, the Soviet station “Luna-9” for the first time in the world made a soft landing on the lunar surface in the Ocean of Storms.
In 1969, the world was informed that the first person to land on the moon in the Apollo 11 spacecraft was American astronaut Neil Armstrong.
In 1969, mankind, having overcome the gravitational influence of the Earth, began to develop the solar system. The first soft landing on the surface of Venus was made by the Soviet interplanetary automatic probe Venera-6. And the first soft landing on Mars by the Soviet automatic Mars-3 station took place in 1971.
In 1973, the American automatic interplanetary station “Pioneer-10” flew around Jupiter and took pictures of the planet from a distance of 132,000 km.
In 1974, the American interplanetary station “Mariner-10” flew past Mercury three times and photographed the planet from a distance of 700 km to 48 km. The first artificial satellite of Mars and the first Martian station in 1976 was the American interplanetary space station Viking-1.
The American space probes Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 flew around Jupiter and Saturn in 1977, and in 1986 – the first flyby near Uranus. In 1986, the first orbital station “Mir” began operation, which completed its work in 2001. An important step in space exploration in 1990 was the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope into near-earth orbit. It makes it possible to continuously observe stars and galaxies with a resolution 7 -10 times better than that of a similar telescope on the planet and is not affected by the opaque atmosphere.
Since November 20, 1998, the ISS manned multipurpose space research complex has been operating in near-earth orbit. This is a joint project of 14 countries of the world: the USA, Russia, Japan, Canada, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, France, Switzerland and Sweden.
The above retrospective analysis of the achievements of science and technology testifies to a very difficult and creative path that humanity has gone through in mastering knowledge about the world around us. Over the years, a scientific, technological, production and materials science base has been created, which is necessary for conquering space. Earthlings approached a new scientific and technical milestone – the beginning of deep space exploration.
Today, many countries have begun to actively develop programs for the further exploration of outer space. In 2020 – 2030, India, Japan, China, Russia and the EU countries plan to launch their spaceships and land people on the Moon, and Japan is planning to build a permanent, inhabited base on it. Astronauts from the United States and the European Union are preparing to send spacecraft with astronauts to Mars in 2030 and land to study the red planet. Russia plans to explore Mars in 2040 – 2045.
In the twentieth century, mankind went beyond the Earth’s atmosphere and began to study and conquer the outer space of the solar system. The flights of cosmonauts and astronauts, the results of observation from space and ground-based telescopes, data obtained from space probes and artificial satellites of the planets, allowed researchers and researchers to penetrate deeper into the essence of cosmic phenomena and prepared the necessary information basis for the formation of theoretical propositions about the structure and functioning of the Universe.
Already at the beginning of the twentieth century, knowledge about space acquired a certain consistency. This allowed them to be combined into a doctrine known as modern cosmology. It is believed that modern cosmology originates from A. Einstein’s general theory of relativity, along with quantum mechanics, which is the basis of the dominant cosmological theories.
In the twentieth century, mankind already possessed a certain set of knowledge about the Universe. Cosmologists, relying on mathematics and physics, applied the latest achievements of science and technology. Modern telescopes, powerful computer systems, huge laboratories on earth and underground, colliders and unique spacecraft have appeared at the service of cosmological science on the tops of mountains and in space.
Despite this, a deep, comprehensively grounded theory of the evolution of the Universe has never been created. The best minds of our civilization have tirelessly worked on solving the huge number of questions facing our society.
How and from what did our Universe arise? Where did the enormous amount of energy and matter that forms its basis come from? Why is She infinite? Where is the cluster of stars, planets and galaxies heading? Does it have boundaries? If so, what form and structure is our universe? Is there life on other planets? Will the end of our entire surrounding world come to an end and what will happen to the Universe afterwards? Will she be at all? If not, why and what will replace it? There are an incredible number of such questions. Cosmologists around the world are still trying to find intelligible answers to them. In search of these answers, scientists began to conduct countless studies and experiments, on the basis of which hypotheses are put forward and various theories of the evolution of the Universe are created.
For the first time, the Russian physicist and mathematician A. Fridman spoke about the Universe as a dynamic structure that is not in a static state in the process of substantiating the provisions of A. Einstein’s general theory of relativity in the 20s of the twentieth century. It was Friedman who, on the basis of his philosophical considerations and mathematical conclusions, suggested that the universe should expand.
A few years later, this was confirmed experimentally by the American scientist and astronomer Edwin Hubble. Observing distant galaxy clusters, Hubble found that they “scatter”. That is, they move away from us, and at a fairly high speed. In this case, all clusters of galaxies are moving away not only from us, but also from each other. The most important result of modeling the Universe, according to Friedman, was the understanding that the Universe is homogeneous, isotropic and not static, that is, it is expanding.
A little later, a student of Friedman, physicist D. Gamow, had an idea: if galaxies fly apart, then, quite possibly, there was once a certain starting point. The reason for this phenomenon may be an incredibly powerful explosion, which scattered stars and planets throughout the Universe. In addition, Gamow theoretically substantiated the existence of radiation, which, hypothetically, should have arisen as a result of this powerful explosion.
In 1965, this hypothesis received support during experiments in the field of radio astronomy and satellite communications by American radio astronomers R. Wilson and A. Penzias. They recorded relic radiation – thermal radiation that uniformly fills the Universe. The relic radiation and the cosmological redshift discovered in 1929 by Hubble are now considered the main evidence of the Big Bang theory. Many scientists have taken it as the basis and starting point in the study of the Universe.
Scientists have decided that the Universe may have been an infinitely small point, into which everything that we see on Earth and in the sky was pressed with a fantastically high density and temperature. Then, for some still unclear reasons, it all exploded and scattered across endless space, forming elementary particles, atoms, chemicals, stars, planets and galaxies. This took about 14 billion years.
Despite all the seemingly fantastic idea of collapsing the entire world around us into one ultra-small point, the Big Bang theory has taken a very stable position in modern cosmology. Moreover, it made it possible to answer many questions facing science. It is generally accepted that at the time of the explosion, the universe was very dense and hot. The temperature reached over 1032K. Many astrophysicists had no doubts that the birth of the Universe came from one point, from which an incandescent plasma scattered at an unimaginably high speed, giving rise to the appearance of the first particles, and then stars and galaxies.
The achievement of the Big Bang theory was the answer to the question of the formation of chemical elements. True, the theory explained that electrons, photons, neutrons and protons, as well as hydrogen atoms, were gradually formed from plasma, but did not reveal the mechanism of their formation. According to the theory, at the initial stage of the Big Bang, an equal number of particles of matter and antimatter existed. But the theory did not explain the reasons for their appearance. In addition, she did not answer the questions:
What happened before the Big Bang? How was all the matter in the Universe concentrated in one ultra-small point? If the entire Universe could be collected into one end point, then it is not infinite? Why did the universe suddenly explode? What caused this explosion? What is the nature of this phenomenon? What caused such a powerful heating of the Universe?
There are still no answers to these questions. This alone does not allow the theory to be accepted, at least in this form and at this time. Science does not stand still. And in search of answers, the American scientist A. Guth in 1980 proposed and described the process of superfast inflationary expansion of the Universe at the early stage of the Big Bang.
The ideas of A. Guth were developed by the Soviet physicist and then professor at Stanford University A. Linde. In 1981-1983, he formulated the theory of chaotic inflation, in which, along with the known electromagnetic, electric, magnetic and gravitational fields, one more is assumed – scalar. A scalar field in his view looks like a vacuum, which, in some cases, can have a high energy density. The theory of chaotic inflation answered many of the questions arising in the theoretical approaches of Guth and his model of the superfast inflationary expansion of the Universe.
The theory asserted that inflation in the vastness of the Universe, i.e. expansion, manifests itself in different parts in different ways. Where the scalar field is too small, inflation does not occur; where it is initially large, inflation chaotically forms huge galactic “islands”. According to Linde, their sizes exceed the size of the observable part of the Universe, which predetermines the existence of many Universes. The chaotic theory of inflation assumes an infinite variety of universes.
Hypotheses about multiple universes have their supporters. They believe that we live in a Multiverse, which is made up of countless others like our universes. These universes can be similar to ours, or they can have significant differences. These hypotheses cannot yet be confirmed experimentally, since humanity does not yet possess the necessary tools of cognition. But we believe that such a time will come and we will get to the truth.
In the mid-80s and 90s of the twentieth century, the so-called string theory was actively developed. The essence of the theory is that all fundamental particles are not point objects of the microworld, but certain vibrations of the thinnest strings with an extremely small length. The length of such a string is about 10-35m. For comparison, the diameter of a proton is approximately 1.7536. 10-15m. The vibration frequency of such a string can determine the mass and energy, that is, a kind of “portrait” of this or that fundamental particle. As an analogue, you can imagine a string instrument, for example, a guitar with strings of different sound, frequency and thickness.
Currently, the developers of string theory are actively looking for solutions that allow them to formulate on its basis a unified theory, or a theory of everything. Physicists have been working on the issue of creating such a theory that unites all physical interactions existing in nature for more than a hundred years. Einstein was also seriously concerned with the construction of such a theory. While creating the general theory of relativity, Einstein realized that it contains a number of ambiguities and serious assumptions. Therefore, after the formation of the general theory of relativity, until the end of his life, he was looking for a universal theory without flaws and assumptions. He never managed to solve this difficult and incredibly important problem.
String theory, as its developers believe, is suitable for describing the microworld at the level of fundamental and elementary particles on the basis of quantum mechanics, and for understanding the megaworld at the level of stars, galaxies and the Universe, based on the provisions of the general theory of relativity. However, this unifying theory is not yet complete.
There are many different theories, hypotheses and models describing the Universe, its structure, origin, existence and the processes that occur in it. Each of them, from general relativity to the most modern string interpretations, is interesting and original in its own way. But a detailed study of these theories and models raises many additional questions for researchers, and also exposes ambiguities and assumptions. This is probably why theories are multiplying, because there is still nothing generally accepted and understandable to everyone. Therefore, the efforts of many, many scientists are multidirectional and unproductive.
At the same time, a scientific foundation has been created, which includes not only theoretical studies, but also a powerful base of long-term results of observations of stars, galaxies and the Universe. The basis for the description of many phenomena was the most complex mathematical calculations, which led to the emergence of generally accepted views on a particular process in the Universe.
Based on the foregoing, one can try to outline the modern understanding of our Universe, which would incorporate a set of generally accepted views on the origin and development of the world around us. So, our Universe, according to astrophysicists and cosmologists:
▷ had a beginning, that is, it originated from an ultra-small space, characterized by ultra-high temperature and pressure;
▷ is unlimited, that is, it has no boundaries in time and space;
▷ homogeneous, that is, regardless of the place, direction and time of observation on a global scale, one and the same picture can be found;
▷ isotropic, that is, there is no preferred direction in space;
▷ is constantly expanding, that is, galaxy clusters are moving away from each other.
These points follow from the main provisions of modern cosmology and to a certain extent represent a generally accepted cosmological principle. However, these assumptions raise more and more questions, focusing on many still unresolved problems.
For example, the assumption of the existence of the Multiverse, that is, a multitude of universes, unambiguously negates the statement about the infinity of our universe. Since this is possible only under the condition of a finite volume of the world around us, existing in another, much larger world, filled with universes similar to ours.
Here you need to stop and take a breath. At the same time, think about the concepts of “Universe” and “Space”, as well as over the categories “space” and “time”.
If the Universe is limitless, then there can be no question of a multitude of universes, since in this case we come to an absurd contradiction. The Infinite Universe leaves no room for other universes. If it has a certain volume and shape, then the Universe should be located in another, fantastically huge space. Let’s say it is limitless, but then we need to talk not about the Universe, but about something incomparably greater. For example, about Space or global outer space.
The concepts of “space” and “the world around us” are usually used in modern literature. In the scientific world, the concept of “Universe” is often used, which means the part of the Universe accessible for observation by modern equipment. This visible part was called “Metagalaxy”, but recently this term is not popular and is being replaced by the concept of “Universe”.
The Universe in modern cosmology is understood as the part of infinite outer space visible to us. Some scientists estimate this space to be about 46 billion light years when viewed to either side of our location in the universe. But the latest news from space and modern discoveries in the microcosm make us think about the validity of many well-established concepts of the Universe and the phenomena occurring in it.
In our communication with you, the object of study and research, I propose to accept the category “Universe” as a single cosmic system that unites all the components of the mega-, macro- and microcosm. In this case, we will proceed from the fact that if we consider that the Universe is still finite, then it will have to be in a certain infinite space, called the Cosmos.
The universe, like everything in this world, had a beginning, the time of its birth. What happened before the birth of the universe, we do not know and will never know. For us, this will forever remain an unknown mystery. We can only guess about it and make our assumptions. And we will definitely talk about this, but a little later.
In the meantime, it is necessary to understand that if the Universe did not exist before its birth, then there could be no time for it either. The time of the Universe starts from the moment of its origin and stops at the moment of its death. If, of course, this ever happens. Just like for any person, the time of his life begins from the day of his birth and ends with the onset of his death.
Development of views on the Universe in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Timur Timerbulatov President of the Conti group of companies, scientist, academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, writer (literary pseudonym Mon Tirey)